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His evening-classes produced many of the activists who became instrumental in the Clyde revolts during and after WWI. Soviet Consul to Scotland. Founding member of PCF, expelled in , revolutionary syndicalist. Historian of the revolution. Tireless advocate to stop U. Wife of John Reed. Paul Levi lt;5 German Communist, activist in the Comintern. Roy, found Communist Parties in Mexico and India. Husband of Louise Bryant. Expelled from the Communist Party for "right-wing deviation" in as main theorist for the Brandlerites.

Particularly occupied with analyzing the actual class struggle of his time on independent Marxist grounds. As a Comintern representative in Germany he helped prepare the aborted insurrection in Also joined the Left Opposition in , expelled from the party in and briefly imprisoned. Exiled in Arrested in for his revolutionary activities and sentenced by a fascist court to 20 years imprisonment. Theorized key concepts such as hegemony, base and superstructure, organic intellectuals, and war of position.

Broke with Stalin over the Post-War settlement and took an independent line. Historian of European Marxism and movements in South America. A prominent figure in the Indonesian national liberation movement and workers movement.

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Responsible for the murder of the entire Bolshevik leadership and the consolidation of bureaucratic rule in the USSR. Page Arnot , Thomas Bell , B. Horrabin , Albert Inkpin , T. Morton , J. Wrote a 4 volume history of science from a Marxist perspective. Wrote classic Marxist analyses of literature and art. Asia; Australian government removed his Australian citizenship. Most of these writers cannot properly be described as Marxists, but nevertheless their work has contributed in some way or another to our understanding of Marxism.

Michurin Soviet scientist who carried out groundbreaking research in genetics.

Marx’s revolutions: 1848-Paris Commune

Semashko Architect of Soviet Health System. Lysenko Promoted theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics as the official Communist Party line in biology. Charted the materialist development of Hegel's dialectics. Soviet Psychologist who made advances in cognitive psychology, the processes of learning and forgetting, and mental retardation.

Charted the way in which damage to specific areas of the brain affect behavior. Western Marxism As it became clear that the world revolution had not spread beyond Soviet Russia, the Communist Parties still exercised great influence, particularly in the workers movement, but some Marxists turned to the unique problems of fighting capitalism in advanced capitalit countries where revolution was no longer on the immediate agenda. Commissar for Culture and Education in Hungary's short-lived Socialist government Helped lead the Hungarian uprising of against Stalinist repression.

Created Marxist theory of aesthetics that opposed political control of artists, defended humanism, elaborated alienation. A supporter of Jean-Paul Sartre's existentialist version of Marxism. After the May '68 student riots, he became more concerned with political ecology. Became pessimistic about the prospects for socialism by the end of World War Two, but was later to become a supporter of Mao. Journalist for the Socialist Standard.

Trotskyism became an opposition force in the workers' movement everywhere. Lead mass movements of veterans and defended workers in court. Wrote extensively about Trotsky. Shot dead by fascists while in prison. After the WWII, understood that Capitalism would recover and dominate the world, and that Socialism had a long struggle ahead. The U. Minister in Ben Bella's Socialist government of Algeria. Developed theory of "centuries of deformed workers states". Also known by the pseudonyms of "Quebracho" and "Lobodon Garra.

Sri Lankan Trotskyists include: Colvin R. Also associated with the I.

Stopped associating with Trotskyism after the s. Left Communism A number of Marxists, especially in Europe and the US, not only rejected Stalinism, but rejected the whole project of building socialism through state power. These were Marxists, not Anarchists, and they remain a force to this day.

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Leading supporter of the KAI. Helped form a Marxist party in the Netherlands. Member of the German Social Democratic party.

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A central figure in the Council Communists movement second-generation and a Pannekoek sympathiser. Keracher was also a journalist and agitator. Stressed the importance of non-white workers to the revolutionary movement, foresaw the civil rights movement decades before it got underway. Secretary to Trotsky, translated many Marx, Engels and Lenin. Critiqued Lenin's theory of the Party being the vanguard. Wright Mills, ] C. Jordan d. Co-founder of the Socialisme ou Barbarie group. Perhaps better known by his pseudonyms Pierre Chaulieu and Paul Cardan. Bottomore, a prolific publisher and translator.

Built the Worker-Communist Party of Iran. Led the split in the Communist Party of the Philippines in over strategy of guerilla warfare. Advocated the orientation to the workers movement, combining parliamentary and extra-parliamentary means of struggle. Helped create and maintain the Cuban Revolution. Creatively tried to establish socialism in Cuba, worked tirelessly to create revolutions throughout Africa and South America. Created the guerilla foco theory — building a revolutionary movement through militant resistance instead of party building.

Executed by police.

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  • Maoism In the early s, divisions opened up within the Comintern, with a current sympathetic to the Mao Zedong, as opposed to the Soviet leader Khrushchev, developing a distinct philosophical and political line, emphasising the role of the peasantry. Worked closely with Mao's wife, Jiang Qing. Deng Xiaoping's policies of reform began to take shape during Hua's tenure, and by , leadership had shifted to Deng. Hua remains a member of the CC. He helped found the Proletarian Party of East Bengal and took part in guerrilla warfare.

    National Liberation Particularly in the decades after the end of World War Two, communists were in the leadership of national liberation struggles, the leaders of these struggles developed a distinct approach to socialist theory. Foremost theorist of protracted warfare. His work frequently promoted radical change through criticism of antiquated cultural values and repressive social customs.

    Teach a man to fish, and you ruin a wonderful business opportunity Attributed to Marx possibly in jest in W. Privy's Original Bathroom Companion Wikipedia has an article about: Karl Marx. Wikisource has original works written by or about: Karl Marx. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Karl Marx. Categories : Karl Marx births deaths. Namespaces Page Discussion.

    Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikipedia Wikisource. This page was last edited on 21 July , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Marco recounted that it was in Paris that Marx studied French materialism, communism, and the working class. Marx came to understand that it was the working class which would be the force capable of leading the next revolution, and in liberating itself would in turn liberate all of humanity.

    It was at this time that Marx wrote his first book in which he provided a concise explanation of historical materialism— The Poverty of Philosophy , published in It was also in this period that Marx and Engels joined the League of the Just, a secret society of German revolutionaries. It was in this league that Marx and Engels fought for the ideas of scientific socialism that they had recently developed. At the end of his presentation, Marco underlined the unshakeable confidence in the working class and optimism for the future of humanity that motivated Marx and Engels.

    Marco explained that we have no reason to be cynical, and that there is no greater cause than fighting for the emancipation of humanity. He ended by stating that he was confident that we would overthrow capitalism within our lifetimes! Jerome mentioned that while the Great French Revolution of had eliminated the old feudal mode of production, a political counter-revolution set in after There were a series of regimes, one after another, which eliminated all of the political conquests of the revolution—first with the empire being established in by Napoleon Bonaparte, and then the Bourbon monarchs returned to power in under Louis XVIII.

    In the late s, a massive economic crisis hit all of Europe, and it was on this basis that the bourgeois opposition acted as a channel for the discontent. In February , when Louis Philippe banned a series of political banquets organized by the opposition, the masses flooded onto the streets and the banquet was transformed into a mass demonstration. This insurrection led to the fall of the regime of Louis Philippe and the establishment of the Second French Republic. It is quite often thought that the French bourgeoisie was revolutionary and fought in a steadfast manner for a republic, but this is really not true.

    Even in , most of the big French bourgeois actually supported the monarchy. The bourgeoisie were more terrified of the workers than they were of the monarchy. It was in fact the masses, as they did in , that once again flooded onto the streets to fight for a republic.


    However, it was not the masses who took power, but again the bourgeoisie who stole power. Over the four years of the Second Republic, there was a vicious fight between the different class forces who attempted to put their stamp on the republic. There was a deadlock in the class struggle, in which neither the bourgeoisie or the workers could gain the upper hand. On the basis of a major capitalist boom, the Second Empire was able to last for almost two decades. But the Franco-Prussian war of brought to the surface all of the contradictions in French society.

    The war was a complete debacle for the French and at a certain point, Bonaparte was captured and the Prussian military surrounded Paris. This led to the creation of a Third Republic headed up by Adolphe Thiers. Paris was surrounded by the Prussian army, defended by the armed people of Paris organized through the national guard. The bourgeois republican government was afraid of the armed Parisian workers, so they negotiated a surrender to the Prussians and a common battle against the workers of Paris. On Jan. Thiers tried to disarm the workers but this ended up being a huge failure and the republican government, along with the Parisian bourgeoisie, fled the city.

    On March 18, the working class woke up with power in its hands. Just to name a few, the Paris Commune established the separation of church and state, the abolition of night work, and free public education. The commune also established a state, the likes of which had never been seen before.

    There was no standing army but the armed people; all officials were elected, responsible and revocable at any time; and no official was paid more than the wage of an average worker. This brief experience forced Marx to update his ideas on the state, as he saw clearly that the workers could make no use of the bourgeois state, but in the course of the revolution would smash it and build a new one in the likeness of the Paris Commune. The experience of the Paris Commune showed that workers are capable of running society and gave us a glimpse of what type of society they will create.

    This task stems from the international character of capitalism. It was through the First International that Marx and Engels worked tirelessly to spread the ideas of scientific socialism among the working class. Right from the beginning, there was a plethora of political tendencies united in this organization: Owenites, Chartists, reformist trade unionists, Proudhonists, republicans, utopian socialists etc.

    Marx and Engels had to work patiently, struggling for their ideas. We must find a way to connect our revolutionary ideas with the masses, using flexible tactics without making any concessions on the fundamental principles. Bakunin was first briefly active in a bourgeois organization in Switzerland, the League for Peace and Liberty. He then formed the Alliance for Democratic Socialism and demanded membership in the International.